A Brief History of Unix
1965, Bell Laboratories (Bell Labs) to join one from General Electric (General Electric) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) co-operation plan; the plan to establish a multi-user, multi-tasking, multi-level (multi -user, multi-processor, multi-level) of the MULTICS operating system. Until 1969, due to slow progress MULTICS project, the project was stopped. At that time, Ken Thompson (later known as the father of Unix) has been called "Star Trek" program in the GE-635 machine running, but the response was very slow, he happened to have been found to be idle a PDP-7 (Digital host), Ken Thompson and Dernis Ritchie will be "Star Trek" program ported to the PDP-7. And this PDP-7 computer in the whole history of this left Yoshina.
MULTICS is "MULTiplexed Information and Computing System" stands in 1970, the Ministry of PDP-7 that can only support two users, then, Brian Kernighan jokingly dubbed on their systems is: "UNiplexed Information and Computing System ", abbreviated as" UNICS ", then we whichever is homophonic, it is called" Unix "the. In 1970 the first year can be called Unix.
In 1971, they applied for a PDP-11/20, the name of the application is: to develop word processing system. The proposal was adopted, they also developed a word processing system ─ the Unix operating system is now inside the word processing system (nroff / troff) predecessor. Interestingly, not long before Bell Labs patent department is really using the system as their document processing tools, and Bell Labs patent department will naturally become the first official user of Unix. At that time, the Ministry of PDP-11/20 only 0.5MB of disk space. And describe the entire system file is marked as: "First Edition", version date is November 1970. Since then, Unix version of the file version on the system do not come to call.
UNIX family tree
UNIX's history began in 1969 ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie (the famous K & G, C language, the inventor) and a group of people in a PDP-7 on some of the work, was to become a UNIX. It is mainly a few version:
V1 (1971): first version of UNIX, written in PDP-11/20 assembly language. Including file system, fork, roff, ed and other software.
V4 (1973): Rewritten in C, which makes UNIX and changes are easy to transplant in a few months to new hardware platforms. UNIX was originally designed for the C language, so C and UNIX have a close relationship between.
V6 (1975): the first one in outside Bell Labs (esp. in universities) widely circulated version of UNIX. UNIX is also the starting point of the branch beginning with the popular. 1.xBSD (PDP-II) is derived from this version.
V7 (1979): UNIX in many players minds, this is "the last true UNIX," This version includes a complete K & RC compiler, Bourne shell. V7 was ported to the VAX machine later known as 32V.
Current development UNIX (System V) of the company is Unix System Laboratories (USL). USL all this is AT & T, acquired by Novell in early 1993. Novell in late 1993 will be transferred to UNIX a registered trademark of the X / Open organization.
So far, UNIX has two schools: that is released by AT & T System V UNIX operating system and the University of California at Berkeley released version of UNIX BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution). SVR4 is essentially a merge of the two schools. The end of 1991, tit for tat with the System V Open Software Foundation (Open Software Foundation) launched the OSF / 1.
|UNIX / Linux development map (simple)|
Now several major versions of UNIX:
◆ AIX: IBM's UNIX, is based on SVR2 (recently out to SVR3.2) and part of the BSD extensions, plus a variety of hardware support. Proprietary system management (SMIT).
◆ 386BSD: Jolitz from the Net / 2 software transplant. Supports Posix, 32 bits.
◆ FreeBSD: 1.x comes from 386BSD 0.1, FreeBSD 2.x with the 4.4BSD lite version is rewritten.
◆ HP-UX (HP): old systems from the S III (SVRx) to the development of surface, now is SVR2 (4.2BSD) evolved, is now the 10.x version.
◆ Linux (x86): comply with POSIX, SYSV and BSD extensions, that from the page table can be seen.
◆ OSF / 1 (DEC): DEC on the OSF / 1 for transplant.
◆ SCO UNIX (x86): SVR3.2, currently affecting a large PC UNIX.
◆ SunOS (680x0, Sparc, i386): based on 4.3BSD, System V contains a number of things from. Sun's main results is: NFS, OpenLook GUI standards, and later evolved into Solaris. This is also one of the most famous version of UNIX.
◆ Ultrix (DEC): based on 4.3BSD 4.2BSD many things together.
◆ Xenix (x86): Intel hardware platform on UNIX, to SVR2 basis, introduced by Microsoft. More widely used in China.
|UNIX / Linux development map (detail) Click to enlarge|