The second novice Linux server operating

2011-08-14  来源:本站原创  分类:OS  人气:109 

1. Search by keywords Man Pages
man-k keyword-k is one option, keyword to search for keywords if you would like to use the whoami command, but only remember the first three characters who, you can use man-k who to search keywords from the man who command
[Haself @ HA5-DZ26 ~] $ man-k who
at.allow [at] (5) - determine who can submit jobs via at or batch
at.deny [at] (5) - determine who can submit jobs via at or batch
jwhois (1) - client for the whois service
jwhois (rpm) - Internet whois / nicname client.

ldapwhoami (1) - LDAP who am i? tool
rusers (1) - who is logged in to machines on local network
rwho (1) - who is logged in on local machines
rwho (rpm) - Displays who is logged in to local network machines.
rwhod (8) - system status server
w (1) - Show who is logged on and what they are doing
who (1) - show who is logged on
who (1p) - display who is on the system
whoami (1) - print effective userid

2. Ls of the strange

(1) output the contents of the current directory

[Haself @ HA5-DZ26 haself] $ ls
images index.jsp internet JTSelf JTSelf20110707.tar META-INF newself.tar test.jsp testList.jsp UploadIMG WEB-INF WebRoot

(2) output the contents of the root directory
[Haself @ HA5-DZ26 haself] $ ls /
bin boot dev etc home lib lib64 lost + found media misc mnt net opt ​​proc root sbin selinux srv sys tmp usr var webapp

Commonly used Linux file system directory:
* / Etc: Some of the main configuration file system is almost entirely on this directory, such as the password file passwd. In this directory files are basically text files in ASCII, ordinary users can generally see the file in this directory, but only the root user can modify these files.
* / Tmp: ordinary user or program can be stored in the temporary files directory to facilitate interaction with other users or processes information. The directory is accessible to any user, so important information should not be placed in some directory.
* / Boot: Linux operating system kernel stored and used when the system boot files. Among them, beginning with vmlinuz is the Linux kernel. If the boot program (loader) chose the grub, the grub directory, there will be a subdirectory (/ boot / grub).
* / Dev: this computer is stored in all devices. Linux system everything is seen as documents, including the hardware.
* / Usr: storage system, applications and data with commands related systems, including some library systems and graphics interface required documents. Some Windows-like systems C: \ Program Files folder. user is the unix system resources abbreviation.
* / Lost + Found: When an abnormal shutdown, crash or an error occurs, the system will store some of the missing pieces in the directory, this directory will be automatically generated by the system when needed.
* / Var: operation of the system is stored in the files change frequently, such as log files and mail files.
* / Srv: storage is all server-related services, that some of the service starts, these services need to access the directory.
* / Proc: is a virtual file system, which is resident in memory, do not take up any disk space. Stored in the directory needed to run the system information that reflects the core of the environment. Stored in the directory all the information in memory, it is somewhat similar to the Oracle database management system with data v $ at the beginning of the word.
* / Lib, / usr / lib, / usr / local / lib: storage of the libraries, the system uses the library. Many programs are running in the process calls from some of these functions in a shared library functions, such as / lib / modules directory includes the kernel-related modules.

(3) lists all the contents of the current directory, and gives each file type, using the-F option with ls command
[Haself @ HA5-DZ26 haself] $ ls-F
images / index.jsp internet / JTSelf / JTSelf20110707.tar META-INF / newself.tar test.jsp testList.jsp UploadIMG / WEB-INF / WebRoot /

Description: With "/" for directory for files with no (4) also want to know all the contents of the directory, and file types can also use ls-l command (equivalent to the ll command)
[Haself @ HA5-DZ26 haself] $ ls-l
Total 123 984
drwxr-xr-x 2 haself aigrp 4096 2010-08-19 images
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 441 2011-01-26 index.jsp
drwxr-xr-x 17 haself aigrp 4096 07-14 14:28 internet
drwxr-xr-x 21 haself aigrp 4096 08-10 18:04 JTSelf
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 53381120 07-07 19:39 JTSelf20110707.tar
drwxr-xr-x 2 haself aigrp 4096 2010-12-17 META-INF
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 73400320 07-14 09:18 newself.tar
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 1877 2009-12-21 test.jsp
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 360 2009-12-24 testList.jsp
drwxr-xr-x 2 haself aigrp 4096 08-11 21:51 UploadIMG
drwxr-xr-x 6 haself aigrp 4096 2010-12-17 WEB-INF
drwxr-xr-x 3 haself aigrp 4096 02-24 19:48 WebRoot

Description: The first column of d at the beginning of the directory to start with - as a file. And the fifth as the file size, in bytes. If the file is too large, it is difficult to understand. So you can use the-h option.

[Haself @ HA5-DZ26 haself] $ ls-lh
Total 122M
drwxr-xr-x 2 haself aigrp 4.0K 2010-08-19 images
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 441 2011-01-26 index.jsp
drwxr-xr-x 17 haself aigrp 4.0K 07-14 14:28 internet
drwxr-xr-x 21 haself aigrp 4.0K 08-10 18:04 JTSelf
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 51M 07-07 19:39 JTSelf20110707.tar
drwxr-xr-x 2 haself aigrp 4.0K 2010-12-17 META-INF
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 70M 07-14 09:18 newself.tar
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 1.9K 2009-12-21 test.jsp
-Rw-r - r - 1 haself aigrp 360 2009-12-24 testList.jsp
drwxr-xr-x 2 haself aigrp 4.0K 08-11 21:51 UploadIMG
drwxr-xr-x 6 haself aigrp 4.0K 2010-12-17 WEB-INF
drwxr-xr-x 3 haself aigrp 4.0K 02-24 19:48 WebRoot

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