The Agile project management using Scrum Introduction

2010-04-25  来源:本站原创  分类:Development  人气:180 

http://www.21cnlib.com/xiazai/other/2010/03-14/628231.html

Scrum is an iterative incremental software development process, commonly used agile software development . Scrum means in English rugby ball inside.

While Scrum is a project management software developed, it can also be used to run the software maintenance team, or as a program management approach: Scrum of Scrums.

History

They will be the new 'holistic approach with the football compared to former stages overlap, and by a cross-functional teams at different stages of completion of the process, which the whole team "tries to go to the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth ".

They come from cars, photo machines, computers and printers, and other industries were studied cases.

  • In 1991, DeGrace and Stahl in "Wicked Problems, Righteous Solutions" [2] this approach in his book called? Scrum , in Hirotaka Takeuchi and? Nonaka 's article mentioned in the football terminology.
  • The early 1990s, Kenshiwabo in a way their companies use Advanced Development Methods (Advanced Development Methods), this method was later developed into Scrum.
  • Meanwhile, Jeff Sutherland at Easel Corp. has developed a similar approach, and for the first time called Scrum. [3]
  • 1995, held in Austin, OOPSLA '95 , the Sutherland and Schwaber jointly presented a paper first presented the concept of Scrum. Schwab and Sutherland took a few years in co-operation, the above article, their experience and integrate the industry's best practices and form we now know of Scrum.
  • In 2001, Schwab and? McBee sinus (Mike Beedle) co-author of "Agile Software Development - use the Scrum process", which introduced the Scrum method.
  • ?

Characteristics of Scrum

Scrum Process

Scrum is a include a series of practices and predefined roles in the process of skeleton. Scrum in the main roles include:

  1. Scrum director (ScrumMaster), the role of project manager with a similar, responsible for maintaining the processes and tasks;
  2. Product Leader (Product Owner), the role of the representatives of all stakeholders;
  3. Development team (Team), this role includes all developers.

In each sprint (a 15 to 30 days cycle, its length by the development team decided), which, the development team to create the available (ready soon) software, an incremental. Each sprint function to be achieved from the product order (product backlog). Product orders are arranged according to priority of work to complete a summary of the needs of those who order items will be added to a sprint decided by the sprint planning meeting. During the meeting, the product development team leader told he needed to complete product orders which order entry. Development team decided to sprint in the next number of orders they can undertake to complete the item. [4] ? in the sprint course, no one can change the order sprint (sprint backlog), which means that demand is in a sprint in frozen.

There are many implementation of the Scrum process management method, sticky notes, whiteboards, has been to package. Scrum's biggest advantages is that it is very easy to learn, and start Scrum application does not require much investment.

Scrum roles

Scrum which defines a number of roles. In accordance with the participation of the development process, these roles are divided into two groups, namely pig group and the chicken group. The origin of this grouping is a restaurant with a partner on the pig and chicken joke [4] :

One day, a pig and a chicken walk in the road. Chicken of the pig, said: "Hey, how we partner to open a restaurant like?" Chicken pig looked back, said: "Good idea, then what are you going to the restaurant from the name?" Chicken then said: "Let the 'ham and egg 'how like? "" I can not do, "Pig said:" I own the whole ride on the inside, but you just participate in it. "

"Pig" group role

Pig? Scrum process in the body into the various roles the project they undertake practical work in the project. Some of them like the joke that on top of the pig, take the meat himself contributed.

Product Leader

Products on behalf of the customer is responsible for the will. This ensures that the Scrum team is doing from a business point of view, the right thing. Product Leader write? user stories , prioritizes, and placed product orders.

Scrum in charge (or facilitator)

Scrum charge for? Scrum process, his main job is to remove the sprint goals that affect the team delivered an obstacle. Scrum is not the team leader in charge (because the team is self-organization), but a shield outside of the development team responsible for the interference of the role. Scrum Scrum in charge to ensure the process is in accordance with the original intention to use. Scrum is in charge of the implementation of those rules.

Development team

Team responsible for delivering the product. A team usually 5-9 people with cross-functional skills (designers, developers, etc.), with a commitment to real development.

"Chicken" the role of group

Chicken? Is not part of the actual Scrum process, but must consider them. ? agile ? method is an important aspect is to make users and stakeholders to participate in the course of time. Participate in the evaluation of each sprint and plans, and provide feedback for these people is very important.

User

Software is developed for people. Some people say, "If a tree falls in the forest, but not heard, it be sent a voice?" Similarly, one could say, "If software is not used, then it is regarded as being developed the What? "

Stakeholders (customers, suppliers)

Affect the success of the project, but only directly involved in the sprint review process.

Manager

Structures for product development groups in environment.

Scrum Meeting

In the sprint, every day of the meeting will be held on the status of projects, known as the "scrum" or "stand up meeting every day." Daily stand up meeting some specific guidelines:

  • Meetings start on time. For those teams often develop late penalties (such as fines, do push-ups, hanging a rubber chicken in the neck)
    • All are invited, but only "pigs" may speak.
    • Regardless of team size, the meeting was limited to 15 minutes.
    • All attendees should stand. (Helps to keep the meeting short)
    • Meeting should be in fixed locations and at the same time every day.

During the meeting, each team member needs to answer three questions: [4]

  • Today you have completed those jobs?
  • What are you going to do tomorrow?
  • Whether the completion of your goals What is the obstacle? (Scrum in charge need to take down these barriers)

Upon completion of each sprint, a sprint review meeting will be held, at the meeting of all team members should reflect on the dash. Sprint review meeting is held to continuous process improvement. Meeting the time limit in 4 hours.

Scrum to promote the work of all team members sit together to conduct oral communication, and stress related to the project specifications (disciplines), they help to create self-organizing teams.

A key principle of Scrum is to recognize customers can change their minds in the project process, change their needs, while the predictive approach and plan type and can not easily address this unforeseen changes in demand. Similarly, Scrum using the empirical method - recognition of the problem can not be fully understood or defined, but the development team to focus on how to make quick launch and respond to emerging needs of the ability to maximize.

Documentation

Product Orders

Product Order (product backlog) is a summary of the project document. Product orders, including all the necessary features of a rough description. Product orders will be created on any product. Product orders are open, everyone can edit. Product orders, including rough estimates, usually in days. Product leader estimate will help to measure the timetable and priority (for example, if the "increase spell check" features of the estimated take 3 days or 3 months, will affect the product characteristics of the desire of the head).

Sprint Order

Order sprint (sprint backlog) is greatly refine the document, including how the team needs to achieve the next spurt of information. Tasks are divided into in hours, no task can be more than 16 hours. If a task more than 16 hours, then it should be further decomposed. Sprint's task orders will not be assigned, but claimed by the team members signed their favorite tasks.

Burn plan

Burn chart (burn down chart) is a publicly displayed chart shows the current spurt in the number of unfinished tasks, or in the sprint order to complete the order is not the number of items. Do not burn plan and earned value chart confused. A burn down chart could be flat for most of the period covered by a sprint and yet the project could still be on schedule.

Adaptive Project Management

Here are some of the common practice of Scrum:

  • Customers as part of the development team. (Such as customer definitely developed a real interest in the outcome.)
  • And all other forms of agile software processes, like, Scrum has frequent features included can work the middle of the deliverable. This allows customers to get early working software, but also makes the project can change the project requirements to meet changing needs.
  • Frequent risk and mitigation plans developed by the development team itself. - At each stage, as promised risk mitigation, monitoring and management (risk analysis).
  • Transparent planning and module development - Let everyone know who is responsible for what, and when completed.
  • The interests of all frequent meetings to track the progress of the project - balance (release, customers, employees, processes) Dashboard updates - the interests of owners update - you have to have early warning mechanisms, such as bringing about a possible delay or deviation.
  • No problem will be under the carpet. Recognize or give any unforeseen problems and will not be punished.
  • In the workplace and working hours must be energized. - Does not mean more work need to work longer.

Scrum terminology

The following are the terms used in Scrum [4] :

Role

Product Leader?

Responsible for maintaining product orders, representing the interests of stakeholders.

Scrum in charge?

Person responsible for the Scrum process to ensure the correct use and makes scrum Scrum maximize revenue.

Development team?

Responsible for self-management product development team composed of cross-functional.

Scrum team

Product Leader, Scrum managers and development teams.

Workpiece

Sprint burn diagram?

In the sprint the length of the map displayed on the progress every day.

Product orders?

In accordance with the priority ranking of high-level requirements.

Sprint Order

To be completed in the sprint task list.

Other

Sprint?

A period of time (usually between 2 weeks to 1 month), the development team will be completed during this period promised in the development of a group of order entry.

Scrum applications in other fields

Although Scrum was originally applied only to software development, it can also be successfully applied to other industries. Now often considered to be a Scrum for the development of any product or managers and the work of iterative, incremental process.

Scrum for Product Development

Scrum product development will be applied in the "" T New New Product Development Game "," (Harvard Business Review 86116:137-146, 1986) the first time, followed by Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi coauthored "" creation of knowledge Enterprise "," (Oxford University Press, 1995) carried out in detail. Scrum has been used to develop today's financial products, Internet products, and medical products.

Scrum used for marketing project management

As marketing is usually operate the project, many of the principles of general project management application on marketing. Marketing can be as project management techniques as optimization. ? to Scrum method of marketing is that marketing managers can help to overcome the problems encountered. Short-term and regular meeting for a small marketing team is very important, because every member of the team can understand what other people are doing and what the entire team moving in the direction. Scrum in marketing applications can be:

  • In the early detection of possible problems, faster, minimum loss to respond to the problem. According to the main principles of Scrum "no issues were swept under the rug", Scrum team members encourage each one described his difficulties, and this difficulty will likely affect the work of the whole team.
  • Reduce financial risk. In the beginning of each sprint cycle, business owners can not pay any price change in any marketing of factors: including increasing investment to exaggerate the number of customers to reduce the investment risk is unknown until mitigation, or to support other activities.
  • Made more flexible marketing plan. Sprint's short-term use can be more effective marketing plans. If a promotional method is invalid in the sprint during the show, marketing manager for the opportunity to replace another of its marketing approach. Description of each team member to each small, but important task of delivery time is easier.
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