spring interview questions

2011-01-02  来源:本站原创  分类:Java  人气:243 

A, spring works:

1.spring mvc please all requests are submitted to the DispatcherServlet, it will be commissioned to other module is responsible for application systems responsible for processing requests for real.
2.DispatcherServlet query one or more HandlerMapping, find the handle requests Controller.
Please submit requests to the target 3.DispatcherServlet Controller
4.Controller the business logic processing, it will return a ModelAndView
5.Dispathcher ViewResolver view of one or more query parser to find the ModelAndView object specifies the view object
6. View object responsible for rendering back to the client.

Second, why use the spring:

AOP allows developers to create non-behavioral concerns, called crosscutting concerns, and insert them into the application code. Using AOP, the public services (such as logging, persistence, transactions, etc.) can be broken down into aspects and applied to domain objects, domain objects without increasing the complexity of the object model.

IOC allows you to create an application environment objects can be constructed, and then pass these objects to the object of their collaboration. As indicated by the word upside down, IOC just turn the JNDI. Do not use a bunch of abstract factories, service locators, a single element (singleton) and direct construction (straight construction), each object is constructed with its collaborating objects. Collaboration is therefore an object from the container-managed (collaborator).

Even a Spring AOP framework, is also a IOC container. Spring is the best place it can help you replace the object. With the Spring, as long as the use of JavaBean properties and configuration files by adding dependent (collaborators). Can then be easily replaced if necessary the collaboration objects with similar interfaces.

Third, you talk about the SSH integration:
Struts (presentation layer) + Spring (business layer) + Hibernate (persistence layer)
Struts is a presentation layer framework, the main role is to interface display, receive requests, distribution requests.
In the MVC framework, Struts VC levels are responsible for the performance of the interface is responsible for the distribution of MVC relationship. (View: follow the JSP, HTTP, Form, Tag, Resourse; Controller: ActionServlet, struts-config.xml, Action)
Hibernate is a persistence framework, it is only responsible for the operation of the relational database.
Spring is a business layer framework is an integrated framework that can be a good bonding layer and persistence layer.

Fourth, tell us about Spring's transaction management:

Service is on a series of database operations (such as inserting multiple data) to commit or rollback a unified, if the insertion is successful, with success, if there is an abnormal middle, then roll back all previous operations.
This will prevent dirty data, to prevent problems with database data.
Development in order to avoid this situation usually for transaction management. Spring also has its own transaction management mechanism, is generally managed using TransactionMananger, the injection can be done by Spring of this feature.

spring offers several classes on the transaction:
TransactionDefinition / / defined transaction attribute
TranscationStatus / / represents the current transaction can commit, rollback.
This is the spring PlatformTransactionManager management services provide the foundation for the interface, under which there is a realization of the abstract class AbstractPlatformTransactionManager, we use the transaction management classes such as DataSourceTransactionManager are all subclasses of this class.

General Service defined steps:

TransactionDefinition td = new TransactionDefinition ();
TransactionStatus ts = transactionManager.getTransaction (td);
{/ / Do sth
transactionManager.commit (ts);
catch (Exception e) {transactionManager.rollback (ts);}

spring to provide the transaction management can be divided into two categories: programmatic and declarative. Programming style, more flexible, but the code volume, there is more duplication of code; declarative programming style than the more flexible.

Programmatic mainly use transactionTemplate. Omitted part of the commit, rollback, a series of affairs object definition is required into the transaction management objects.
void add () {
transactionTemplate.execute (new TransactionCallback () {
pulic Object doInTransaction (TransactionStatus ts)
{/ / Do sth}


Use TransactionProxyFactoryBean:


Poxy's dynamic proxy around the submission and automatically roll back transactions

PROPAGATION_REQUIRED-support for the current transaction, if the current no transaction to create a new transaction. This is the most common choice.

PROPAGATION_SUPPORTS-support for the current transaction, if the current no transaction, with regard to non-transactional manner.

PROPAGATION_MANDATORY-support for the current transaction, if the current transaction is not to throw an exception.

PROPAGATION_REQUIRES_NEW-new services, if the current transaction exists, to suspend the current transaction.

PROPAGATION_NOT_SUPPORTED-operation with non-transactional manner, if the current transaction exists, put the current transaction pending.

PROPAGATION_NEVER-to non-transactional manner, if the current transaction exists, an exception is thrown.

PROPAGATION_NESTED-exist if the current transaction, execute in the nested transaction. If no transaction is carried out with the PROPAGATION_REQUIRED similar operations.

Five, Spring inside how to configure the database driver?

Use "org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DriverManagerDataSource" data source to configure the database driver. Examples are as follows:
<property name="driverClassName">
<value> org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver </ value>
</ Property>
<property name="url">
<value> jdbc: hsqldb: db / appfuse </ value>
</ Property>
<property name="username"> <value> sa </ value> </ property>
<property name="password"> <value> </ value> </ property>
</ Bean>

VI, Spring applicationContext.xml file which can change the other file name?

ContextLoaderListener is a ServletContextListener, it starts in your web application initialization time. By default, it will look in the WEB-INF/applicationContext.xml Spring configuration file. You can define an element named <context-param> "contextConfigLocation" to change the Spring configuration file. Examples are as follows:

<listener-class> org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener
<param-name> contextConfigLocation </ param-name>
<param-value> / WEB-INF/xyz.xml </ param-value>
</ Context-param>
</ Listener-class>
</ Listener>

Seven, how web application configuration inside the spring?

Include the following in the web.xml with the volume, start the web server load / WEB-INF/applicationContext.xml content.
<servlet-name> context </ servlet-name>
</ Servlet-class>
<load-on-startup> 1 </ load-on-startup>
</ Servlet>
ApplicationContext instance by using the following class

VIII, Spring inside how to define the hibernate mapping?

Added hibernate mapping files to the web / WEB-INF directory inside the applicationContext.xml file. Examples are as follows:
<property name="mappingResources">
<value> org / appfuse / model / User.hbm.xml </ value>
</ List>
</ Property>

IX explain Dependency injection (DI, DI) and IOC (Inversion of control, inversion of control)?

DI is a program dependency injection design patterns and architecture model, also known as inversion of control for some time, even though technically speaking, dependency injection is a special implementation IOC, dependency injection is applied to an object to another object to provide a special ability, for example: a database connection parameters to form the structure of an object method spread to the inside rather than in-house that object to create a connection. Inversion of Control and Dependency Injection The basic idea is to kind of rely on the internal conversion from the class to reduce the reliance on external applications to inversion of control, the object being created, by a control system, all objects outside entities, will they rely on reference to the object passed to it. Can also say that dependency is injected into the object. Therefore, inversion of control is how to get him on an object reference to an object depends, the responsibility of the reversal.

Ten, spring in the role of BeanFactory and ApplicationContext What?

1. BeanFactory is responsible for reading the bean configuration files, the management bean to load, instantiate and maintain dependencies between bean, bean is responsible for the statement cycle.
2. ApplicationContext addition to the function of the BeanFactory can provide, but also provides a more complete framework functions:

a. International Support
b. Resource Access: Resource rs = ctx. getResource ("classpath: config.properties"), "file: c: / config.properties"
c. passing the event: the interface by implementing ApplicationContextAware
3. ApplicationContext methods commonly used for:
FileSystemXmlApplicationContext: url from the file system or create the specified xml configuration file, parameter for the configuration file name or file name arrays
ClassPathXmlApplicationContext: xml configuration file from the classpath, create, read from the jar package configuration file
WebApplicationContextUtils: from the web application's root directory to read the configuration file, you need to configure in the web.xml, you can configure the listener or servlet to achieve
<listener-class> org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener </ listener-class>
</ Listener>
<servlet-name> context </ servlet-name>
<servlet-class> org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderServlet </ servlet-class>
<load-on-startup> 1 </ load-on-startup>
</ Servlet>
These two methods are the default configuration file for web-inf/applicationContext.xml, context-param can be specified using the configuration file
<param-name> contextConfigLocation </ param-name>
<param-value> / WEB-INF/myApplicationContext.xml </ param-value>
</ Context-param>

XI, how to configure the applicationContext.xml file in the web environment?

</ Listener-class>
</ Listener>
<servlet-name> context </ servlet-name>
</ Servlet-class>
<load-on-startup> 1 </ load-on-startup>
</ Servlet>
Remove the applicationContext instance through the following methods:
ApplicationContext ac = WebApplicationContextUtils.getWebApplicationContext (this.getServletContext);

Second, how to configure spring + struts?

In struts-config.xml to add a plug-in, through which the load applicationContext.xml
 Modify the struts-config.xml action-mapping tags, the specific action to the DelegateActionProxy
 DelegateActionProxy into a spring by the environment.
 In the spring of applicationContext.xml to join <bean name="/login""" singleton="false"/>

Thirteen, spring + hibernate configuration file of the main categories are those? How to configure?

sessionFactory: hibernate.cfg.xml
userDao (extends HibernateDaoSupport)

To join the spring in the environment in myeclipse add hibernate environment.
If the combination of spring and hibernate hibernate.cfg.xml file is correct can not

Fourth, how to achieve international spring?

Load a bean in applicationContext.xml
<property name="basename">
<value> message </ value>
</ Property>
</ Bean>
 In the src directory to build more properties files  For non-English source to use native2ascii-encoding gb2312  relevant content, translate the file format is named message_ language _ country.
 page message is displayed, the keys to take keys.
 When a given country, the system will automatically load the corresponding state properties information.
 By applictionContext.getMessage ("key name", "parameters", "region") out relevant information.

Fifth, spring in the core classes are those, each do?

BeanFactory: create a new instance of the Singleton pattern can be achieved
BeanWrapper: get and set to provide a unified approach
ApplicationContext: provide a framework for implementation, including all the features of BeanFactory

Sixteen, what is the aop, aop What is the role?

Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) provides another perspective to think about program structure, this way compensate for object-oriented programming (OOP) in addition to lack of class (classes) outside, AOP provides a section. Cutting the face of concerns for modular, cross-section of multiple types and objects such as transaction management
One of the key components of Spring is the AOP framework, you can choose whether to use AOP
Provide declarative enterprise services, especially to replace EJB declarative services. The most important service is declarative transaction management, the service built on top of Spring's abstraction of things management allows the user to implement a custom section, OOP using AOP to improve the use of Spring AOP can be seen as an enhancement Spring

Seventh, the use of Spring What are the benefits?

◆ Spring can effectively organize your middle tier objects, whether you choose to use the EJB. If you only use Struts or other specific APIs, including the J2EE framework, Spring concerns you will find a legacy issue.

◆ Spring can eliminate a lot of projects in the excessive use of Singleton. In my experience, this is a major problem, it reduces the testability of the system and object-oriented features.
◆ Spring can eliminate the use of the properties of a variety of custom file format, the needs of the entire application and engineering, through a consistent approach to configuration. Have confused a specific class of properties to find psychedelic keywords or system attributes, and even this had to read Javadoc source code it? With Spring, you can be very simple to see that kind of JavaBean properties. The use of inverted control (discussed below) to help complete this simplification.
◆ Spring through the interface instead of class to promote good programming practice to reduce the programming costs to almost zero.
◆ Spring is designed to allow applications to use it to create as little as possible dependent on his APIs. Most applications in the Spring business objects do not depend on the Spring.
◆ applications built using Spring easy unit testing.
◆ Spring EJB can use as an implementation choice, not an inevitable choice for application architecture. You can choose to use local EJBs or POJOs to implement the business interface, but does not affect the calling code.
◆ Spring helps you solve many problems without using EJB. Spring provides a replacement for EJB objects, which for many web applications. For example, Spring AOP can be used to provide declarative transaction rather than through the use of EJB container, if you only need to deal with a single database, even without JTA implementation.
■ Spring to provide a consistent data access framework, whether using JDBC or O / R mapping products (such as Hibernate).
Spring does make you through the most simple and practical solution to solve your problem. These features are very valuable.
To sum up, Spring has the following advantages:
◆ Low-intrusive design, code, independent of contamination is very low ◆ applications server, you can truly Write Once, Run Anywhere promises ◆ Spring's DI mechanism reduces the complexity of the business object substitution is not entirely dependent on ◆ Spring Spring, Developers are free to use some or all of Spring Framework

Eighteen, what is the Spring, it has characteristics?

Spring is a lightweight Inversion of Control (IoC) and aspect-oriented (AOP) of the container framework.

◆ Lightweight - from the size and cost in terms of both Spring is lightweight. Spring framework can be integrated in a number of JAR size is only 1MB file release. Spring and processing overhead required is negligible. In addition, Spring is non-invasive: typically, Spring Application object does not depend on the Spring-specific classes.

◆ Inversion of Control - Spring Inversion of Control by a known (IoC) the technology for the loosely coupled. When the application of the IoC, an object will depend on other objects is passed through a passive way, rather than the object itself to create or find the dependent objects. You can think of IoC with JNDI opposite - not to find dependent objects from the container but the container object in the object initialization range will depend on the request to take the initiative passed to it.
◆ Aspect Oriented - Spring provides rich support for aspect-oriented programming, allowing the application by separating business logic and system-level services (such as auditing (auditing) and services () management) for the development of cohesion. Application object is only to implement them should do - complete the business logic - and nothing more. They are not responsible for (or even awareness) of other system-level concerns, such as log or transaction support.
◆ container - Spring and manage the application object contains the configuration and life cycle, in the sense that it is a container, you can configure how each of your bean is created - based on a configurable prototype (prototype), your You can create a single bean instance or each time you need to generate a new instance - and how they are interrelated. However, Spring should not be confused with the traditional heavyweight EJB containers, which are often large and bulky, difficult to use.
◆ Framework - Spring can be a simple component configuration, combined into complex applications. In the Spring, the application object is declaratively combination, typically in a XML file. Spring also provides a lot of basic functionality (transaction management, persistence framework integration, etc.), the development of the application logic left you.

Nineteenth, please tell us Spring Bean life cycle framework

A, Bean definition
Spring configuration file is usually defined by Bean. Such as:

<? Xml version = "1.0" encoding = "UTF-8"?>
<Beans xmlns = "http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
xmlns: xsi = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi: schemaLocation = "http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.0.xsd">
<property name="msg">
<value> HelloWorld </ value>
</ Property>
</ Bean>
</ Beans>

This configuration file defines a logo for the HelloWorld of the Bean. In a configuration file can define multiple Bean.

Second, Bean there are two ways to initialize the initialization Bean.
1, in the configuration document properties by specifying the init-method to complete the class in the Bean Bean properties to implement an initialization methods such as init (), such as:
public class HelloWorld {
public String msg = null;
public Date date = null;

public void init () {
msg = "HelloWorld";
date = new Date ();
... ...
Then, in the configuration file init-mothod attributes:
<bean"HelloWorld""com.pqf.beans.HelloWorld" init-mothod="init">
</ Bean>

2, the interface to achieve org.springframwork.beans.factory.InitializingBean
Bean implementation InitializingBean interface, and increase the afterPropertiesSet () method:

public class HelloWorld implement InitializingBean {
public String msg = null;
public Date date = null;

public void afterPropertiesSet () {
msg = "Say hello to the world!";
date = new Date ();
... ...

Then, when all the Bean properties are set after Spring's BeanFactory, it will automatically call the afterPropertiesSet () method to initialize Bean, therefore, do not need to specify the configuration file init-method attribute.

Third, Bean There are three ways you can call and be called by Bean:
1, the use of BeanWrapper
HelloWorld hw = new HelloWorld ();
BeanWrapper bw = new BeanWrapperImpl (hw);
bw.setPropertyvalue ("msg", "HelloWorld");
system.out.println (bw.getPropertyCalue ("msg"));

2, using the BeanFactory
InputStream is = new FileInputStream ("config.xml");
XmlBeanFactory factory = new XmlBeanFactory (is);
HelloWorld hw = (HelloWorld) factory.getBean ("HelloWorld");
system.out.println (hw.getMsg ());

3, the use of ApplicationConttext
ApplicationContext actx = new FleSystemXmlApplicationContext ("config.xml");
HelloWorld hw = (HelloWorld) actx.getBean ("HelloWorld");
System.out.println (hw.getMsg ());

Fourth, Bean's destruction
1, using the configuration file destory-method attributes and initialization properties init-methods similar to the Bean class Bean implements a method of revocation, and then in the configuration file specified by destory-method, then when the bean destroyed, Spring will automatically call the specified method of destruction.

2, to achieve org.springframwork.bean.factory.DisposebleBean interface, if implemented DisposebleBean interface, Spring will automatically call the bean methods in Destory destroyed, so, Bean must provide Destory method.

Twenty, AOP which explains the important concept of a few terms:

Aspect (Aspect): a modular concerns, the concerns may cross multiple objects. J2EE application transaction management is a crosscutting concern about a good example. In Spring AOP, aspects can use the generic class (based on the model's style) or in the general category in the @ Aspect annotation (@ AspectJ style) to achieve.

Connection points (Joinpoint): during program execution in a particular point, such as when a method call or when dealing with exceptions. In Spring AOP, a join point always represents a method of execution. Org.aspectj.lang.JoinPoint by declaring a parameter of type can make informed (Advice) to obtain the main part of the connection point information.

Notice (Advice): In the aspect of a particular connection point (Joinpoint) on the implementation of the action. Notified of all types, including "around", "before" and "after" such notice. The type of notification will be discussed in a later section. Many AOP frameworks, including Spring, is to notify the model of the interceptor to do, and maintain a connection point as the center of the interceptor chain.

Entry point (Pointcut): match connection point (Joinpoint) assertions. Notifications associated with a pointcut expression, and in meeting the entry point of the connection point on the run (for example, when performing a particular method name.) How pointcut expressions and the connection point matching is the core of AOP: Spring uses the default AspectJ pointcut syntax.

Introduction (Introduction): (also known as inter-type declarations (inter-type declaration)). Additional method statement or a type of field. Spring to allow the introduction of new interfaces (and a corresponding implementation) to any proxied object. For example, you can use to make the bean implement an IsModified the introduction of the interface to simplify caching.

Target object (Target Object): to be one or more aspect (aspect) of the notice (advise) the object. Some people call it being informed (advised) object. Since Spring AOP is implemented by run-time agent, this object will always be a by proxy (proxied) object.

AOP proxy (AOP Proxy): AOP framework creates the object, used to implement the aspect contracts (aspect contract) (including the notification method to perform other functions.) In the Spring of, AOP proxy can be a JDK dynamic proxy or a CGLIB proxy. Note: Spring 2.0 introduced the latest model-based (schema-based) style and the @ AspectJ annotation-style aspect declaration style for the use of these users, the agent created is transparent.

Weaving (Weaving): the aspect (aspect) to connect to other application types or objects, and create a be notified (advised) of the object. These can be compiled (for example, using the AspectJ compiler), class load time and run-time to complete. Spring and the other pure Java AOP framework, as done in the run-time weaving.

Notification type:

Pre-notification (Before advice): In a connection point (join point) before the implementation of the notification, but this notice does not prevent the implementation of connection points before (unless it throws an exception.)

Back to notify (After returning advice): In a connection point (join point) after the normal execution of the notice: for example, one method does not throw any exceptions, the normal return.

After throwing an exception notification (After throwing advice): In the method throws an exception when the withdrawal notice executed.

Notify (After (finally) advice): When a connection point from the time notice of the implementation (whether normal or abnormal returns exit).

Around advice (Around Advice): surrounded by a connection point (join point) of the notice, such as method calls. This is the most powerful kind of advice. Around the method call notification can be custom behavior before and after completion. It will also decide whether to continue the implementation of connection points, or directly return to their own return value or throwing an exception to the end of execution.

Around advice is the most common kind of advice. Most interception-based AOP frameworks, such as Nanning and JBoss4, provide only around advice.

Entry point (pointcut) and connection points (join point) matches the key concept of AOP, which makes the AOP provides only intercept is different from other functions of the old technology. Entry point allows positioning notice (advice) can be independent of the OO hierarchy. For example, a declarative transaction management to provide notice can be applied to around a set of methods spanning multiple objects (for example, the service layer for all business operations.)

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