Core algorithm and practical application of ERP

2011-09-14  来源:本站原创  分类:Industry  人气:137 

A practical application of the ERP core algorithm and
ERP software is to enhance the efficiency of a very powerful business management tools, many domestic enterprises are ready to use ERP software. Author through their practical application and design experience, a practical introduction of the ERP core algorithm, suitable for domestic small and medium scale enterprises (3000 people the following business) use.

ERP software is the core ERP enterprise resource management, and its predecessor is the MRP, the material demand management, MRP was first used in manufacturing enterprises, manufacturing enterprises received a variety of orders, and experience often can not simply hand it a good solution to this problem: enough with the material at hand? When materials need to purchase anything? How many purchases right? The MRP can be well calculated material requirements to help enterprise managers to make preparations for the procurement of materials, both to ensure that production is not lack of material, without a huge backlog of inventory. Backlog of material flow and is often accompanied by capital flows and backlog, it was added to the MRP in the financial module, financial logistics and inventory on the effective management, which is MRPII, the second generation of the MRP. The MRP management thinking on its most extreme when the number of Japan's Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyota concept of "zero inventory", "JIT" (timely supply) and advanced management concepts and highly respected in the world. Zero inventory is to minimize inventory, because any capital stock means that the backlog. The JIT (timely supply) that is most appropriate when the company received the proper materials, not lack of material, not the backlog.

Modern enterprise customers and suppliers have greatly expanded the geographic scope, and many companies in the country and around the world for sales and purchases, the cost of such materials is very high flow. In this regard I have personal experience, the author a few years ago foreign-invested enterprises in Guangdong to do a production management work, and once received a major order to begin production after the discovery, production will soon be off the required copper material, and that copper is supplied by Taiwan Province of China, usually months in advance bulk orders, shipping from Taiwan to come. To make the production line without downtime (production downtime costs are high), had to let Taiwan's air cargo provider immediately (transit through Hong Kong) axis of copper over a few emergency, so no reason to spend nearly a million air freight.

Currently, manufacturers are facing greater challenges, because the era of personalized style means more demand, smaller quantities, so that the material procurement and production management more difficult than high-volume manufacturing is much more difficult. The same eight or ten years to produce only a single product has become history, and now even a step slower than their competitors will introduce new products to the enterprise a lot of losses. Such as mobile communications market in China, Motorola has been unrivaled in the world of analog mobile big man, glory, and later launched a small and Ericsson cell phone numbers, all of a sudden become the darling of the market, then a few years, Ericsson cell phone models have been has not changed much, while Nokia has continued to launch trendy style, recognized by the market, quickly becoming the new darling of the mobile phone market.

MRPII does greatly help the company meet these challenges, but it also needs to change to meet their own additional challenges. Management of the enterprise include: people (human resources), financial (capital), physical (materials, products and machinery, plant, etc.), MRPII management software does not include the full range of business management resources. MRPII ERP software to further expand the scope of management software, which the MRP in the "objects" to expand the scope of the management of all enterprise resources, such as human resources, equipment capability, and so on.

ERP core function is to help companies manage the available resources, which of course the most important financial (capital), physical (materials, products).

Bill of Materials (BOM)
All of the ERP software are inseparable from the list of materials (BOM), BOM is the basis for all computing ERP, the management of resources is based on the BOM BOM do the unfolding operation. BOM is the product formulation, manufacture a particular product that lists all the materials needed list. Production of each product is different from the materials used are different and therefore BOM is different. Successful implementation of ERP software, depends largely on sorting out the business of an accurate BOM. In order BOM, you need to sub-severity, secondary, irrelevant material may not be included, so you can grasp the key.

When a product with the formula in hand, it is almost the same as having resolved the golden key to enterprise resource management issues, so that when the order received, according to sales forecasts or production plans developed after the introduction of anti-can be calculated: enough materials on hand enough? When materials need to purchase anything? How many purchases right? In the ERP software, the "objects" to expand the scope of the management of all enterprise resources, such as human resources, equipment capability, so you can calculate the anti-introduced: human resources on hand, equipment with enough capacity? Enough funds to use? This can take orders? When what resources? How much the most appropriate? In the ERP software, product formulations can also include making a particular product the required human resources, equipment capability, capital and other resources of the list. From here you can see, in project management, ERP can also show its mettle. So ready for the business success of an accurate BOM has half a.

Different BOM ERP systems use different storage structure, this article describes the algorithm using single BOM storage structure, it has the advantage of simple, easy to use, scalable, and can achieve unlimited levels. Figure 1 is a simple diagram of the BOM structure.

Another advantage of such a structure is the input and maintenance of the BOM is easy, users can use Excel to prepare the BOM, and more convenient. Material usage and material to prepare in advance the number of days are two important parameters of the BOM, which are controlled from the volume and time to achieve "zero inventory", "JIT" (timely supply of) the highest goal.

One thing to note is that we are talking about products, materials include all resources, but also between products and materials only relative. So that all the resources (products, materials and other resources) are placed in a database, simplifying management, which is the ERP to the new concept. This core business BOM only two databases, a resource library, which includes all the resources (products, materials and other resources); another is the material composition table (BOM). The advantage is: when to start using BOM is quite easy to do, you can easily extend the range of applications, from basic material needs, to human resources, equipment and other resources, to fund the project schedule management, and only need to do The resource library is to put them in, so this structure can fully demonstrate the advantages of ERP.

The algorithm uses single-layer structure of BOM storage is another advantage: the user is very easy to use, does not require resources (products, materials and other resources) to do any special coding, do not need to care-rooted problems. This makes it easier to ERP implementation, the original may take months or even half a year to prepare BOM, now as long as twelve weeks may be sufficient. For many Chinese enterprises may be very important, because the big European and American-funded enterprises can take 1 to 2 years to implement ERP systems, many Chinese enterprises are facing day survival and development of severe problems, they need The immediate impact of something fast to improve their competitiveness.

Another advantage of this structure is able to better deal with replacement parts problems. Replacement parts is troubled by MRP / ERP-standing problem, when a production unit using either A, you can also use the B, C, D and other components, the computer processing it will be very strenuous. And after a single repository that can be classified as a virtual substitute parts class, and create a class in the BOM only reference to the class.

Similarly, a single structure can be very simplified BOM table, because in many companies, such as shoe, shoes of different sizes often differ in the amount of BOM number of proportionate increase or decrease, or most of the same, The difference is only in one or two accessories. Structure can easily realize a single virtual middleware, such as a shoe factory with 10,000 kinds of styles, each with 50 shoe material, if simply multiplied, is 10000 × 50 = 500000 kinds of materials formulations, and all kinds of styles classification, by increasing the number of virtual middleware, and if the shoe section A common parts, then the final desired formulation may be less than 20000 materials sufficient to calculate the actual application and bring great convenience.

Algorithm for calculating when to start the core BOM is ready, you can calculate the ERP started, here is a start algorithm.

The specific algorithm implementation steps are:

1 Clear the temporary database;
2. From the customer order database into actual orders or sales forecasts, inserted into the temporary database, which is needs to be expanded;
3 read out from the temporary database requirements, while reading the material composition table (BOM) in the corresponding items of material needs, and inserted into the temporary database, this is the start of the sub-layer needs;
4 Repeat 3 until all of the layer count, or count to a specified level (which should allow the user to choose, especially when the number of levels in many cases);
5 to start the first reading from the inventory database inventory, insert into the temporary database, which is the inventory;
6. Read a database from the production order to start the first order, into the temporary database, which is the system volume;
7 to start reading from the first purchase order database purchase order, into the temporary database, which is the amount of the purchase.

Some of the key code is as follows:

'Started to do the following calculation, from top to bottom DoNextLevel:
MySqLcalling = "select * from ERPTemp where state <> 1 order by product number."
If Myrs.State = 1 Then Myrs.Close
Set Myrs = Nothing
Myrs.Open MySqLcalling, MyDE, adOpenStatic, adLockBatchOptimistic
Product Number = -1
Do Until Myrs.EOF
If Myrs ("status") = 2 Then
Myrs ("state") = 0
GoTo ReachNewRecord
End If
If Item <> Myrs ("Product ID") Then
Product ID = Myrs ("Product ID")
MysqlERP = "select product number, material number, material usage, material prepared in advance the number of days from the product material composition of the table where the product number =" & Myrs ("Product ID")
If MyDE.State = 0 Then MyDE
. Open
If MyRsERP.State = 1 Then MyRsERP.Close
MyRsERP.Open MysqlERP,
MyDE, adOpenForwardOnly, adLockReadOnly
End If
If Not MyRsERP.BOF Then
Do Until MyRsERP.EOF
TheNeededMonth = DateDiff ("m", Now, DateAdd ("d",-MyRsERP ("materials to prepare in advance the number of days"), Now ()))
If TheNeededMonth <1 Then TheNeededMonth = 0
If TheNeededMonth> 12 Then TheNeededMonth = 12
If ERPbyWeek Then
'By week
TheNeededMonth = DateDiff ("WW", Now, DateAdd ("d",-MyRsERP ("materials to prepare in advance the number of days"), Now ()))
If TheNeededMonth <1 Then TheNeededMonth = 0
If TheNeededMonth> 52 Then TheNeededMonth = 52
End If
Myrsbookmark = Myrs.Bookmark
Myrs number = Myrs ("number")
Myrs ("group number") = 4
Myrs ("Group") = "demand"
Myrs ("status") = "2"
Myrs ("Product ID") =
MyRsERP ("Material Number")
Myrs ("quantity") = MyRsERP ("material amount") * Myrs number of Myrs ("Date") = DateAdd ("d",-MyRsERP ("materials to prepare in advance the number of days"), Now ())
Myrs ("month") =
Myrs.Bookmark = Myrsbookmark
Myrs ("state") = 1
End If
Myrs ("state") = 1
ERPlevel = ERPlevel + 1
If ERPStop Then GoTo ErrorHandle
If CalcLevel = -1 Then
GoTo DoNextLevel
If ERPlevel <CalcLevel Then GoTo DoNextLevel
End If
'OK, the end End If

We can note, as above, using a single BOM storage structure, so to start the calculation algorithm is quite simple, because no specific product code, BOM input and maintenance is also very simple. In addition, we can also note that the algorithm is no need to recursively nested, so you can run faster.

Expand the calculation is finished, you can tune out the use of temporary cross-table data in the database, browse, analyze and print. This demand and supply (inventory, the amount in the system, the purchase amount) to put together in a comparison, managers can be very intuitive, clear that the number of resources available, how much demand; Management can thus make purchasing and production plans. The plan is the main program can also be a fine plan, depending on where the user selected to expand the layer, if you expand all of the layers, then all of the fine programs, such as the workshop program, each workshop of manpower, equipment, arrangements will be included.

The algorithm uses an Access database in VB 6.0 on debugging to achieve, the use of special algorithms designed to make both can achieve unlimited levels, it does not recursively nested. For domestic small and medium scale enterprises (3,000 or less, products, materials, total number of entries in the 50 000 or less), the use of Access developers of small ERP system can realize the modernization of enterprise management, to meet the daily management needs.

ERP is an enterprise resource Calculator
ERP is an effective management tool for in-house resources for effective management, significantly reduced the backlog of inventory, speed up cash flow, reduce costs. In the current competitive market environment, and who better than someone else at a lower cost to produce better products more beautiful, who can become the market leader. Rockefeller U.S. oil magnate most fundamental reason for the success of his fine tight cost management. He accurately reported following up inspection and analysis of expenses and costs, sales and profit and loss data, and thus assess the work of each branch.

In real life, corporate management, in particular, the actual operation of the first-line supervisors, rarely, as everyone has digital analysis Rockefeller talent, but many companies is much more complex than refineries, so tools such as ERP is a kinds of enterprise resource calculator, if the company strictly in accordance with its procedures do, then it can also accurately than the Rockefeller analytical processing data.

If Rockefeller were still alive today, he would surely be the help of powerful computers to manage large business. But tools are tools, after all, the most intelligent people still use it. If an entrepreneur with Rockefeller as business intelligence, even if the hand count, he is certainly in accordance with this concept in the effective management of work.

So the machine but not the most intelligent people who use it, ERP is an enterprise resource calculator, like the hands of accountants abacus, calculator, is only a tool.

Summary of ERP implementation, the most important point is that we must grasp the key, and ignore some minor factors, which regulate all aspects of management and falls far short of domestic enterprises is particularly critical. This captures the essence after the implementation of the success is inevitable. Also must be noted, ERP software is only a tool only, apply the wisdom of business management how high, how high have the level of software applications. $ 1 million and 1 million ERP software ERP software differences, functionality and reliability in addition, there is a very important point is that the former through the concrete implementation of the process, will be a very sound management practices and management philosophy should be taught to enterprise management applications are, which is often said that the value of knowledge.


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